1.0 INDIAN BANKING SYSTEM – FOREX
A banking company in India has been defined in the banking companiesact,1949.as one “which transacts the business of banking which means the accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdraw able by cheque, draft, order or otherwise.” Most of the activities a Bank performs are derived from the above definition. In addition, Banks are allowed to perform certain activities which are ancillary to this business of accepting deposits and lending. A bank’s relationship with the public, therefore, revolves around accepting deposits and lending money. Another activity which is assuming increasing importance is transfer of money – both domestic and foreign – from one place to another. This activity is generally known as “remittance business” in banking parlance. The so called forex (foreign exchange) business is largely a part of remittance albeit it involves buying and selling of foreign currencies.
Functioning of a Bank is among the more complicated of corporate operations. Since Banking involves dealing directly with money, governments in most countries regulate this sector rather stringently. In India, the regulation traditionally has been very strict and in the opinion of certain quarters, responsible for the present condition of banks, where NPAs are of a very high order. The process of financial reforms, which started in 1991, has cleared the cobwebs somewhat but a lot remains to be done. The multiplicity of policy and regulations that a Bank has to work with makes its operations even more complicated, sometimes bordering on illogical. This section, which is also intended for banking professional, attempts to give an overview of the functions in as simple manner as possible. Banking Regulation Act of India, 1949 defines Banking as “accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdraw able by cheques, draft, and order or otherwise.”
KINDS OF BANKS
Financial requirements in a modern economy are of a diverse nature, distinctive variety and large magnitude. Hence, different types of banks have been instituted to cater to the varying needs of the community. Banks in the organized sector can be classified in to the following
1. COMMERCIAL BANKS:-
Commercial banks are joint stock companies dealing in money and credit. In India, however there is a mixed banking system, prior to July 1969, all the commercial banks-73 scheduled and 26 non-scheduled banks, except the state bank of India and its subsidiaries-were under the control of private sector. On July 19, 1969, however, 14mejor commercial banks with deposits of over 50 Corers were nationalized. In April 1980, another six commercial banks of high standing were taken over by the government.
2. CO-OPERATIVE BANKS:-
Co-operative banks are a group of financial institutions organized under the provisions of the Co-operative societies Act of the states. The main objective of co-operative banks is to provide cheap credits to their members. They are based on the principle of self-reliance and mutual co-operation. Co-operative banking system in India has the shape of a pyramid a three tier structure, constituted by:
3. SPECIALIZED BANKS:-
There are specialized forms of banks catering to some special needs with this unique nature of activities. Foreign exchange banks, Industrial banks, Development banks, Land development banks, Exim bank are important.
4. CENTRAL BANK:-
A central bank is the apex financial institution in the banking and financial system
of a country. It is regarded as the highest monetary authority in the country. It acts as the leader of the money market. It supervises, control and regulates the activities of the commercial banks. It is a service oriented financial institution. India’s central bank is the reserve bank of India established in 1935.and it was nationalized in 1949.It is free from parliamentary control.
ROLE OF BANKS IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY
Banks play a very important and dynamic role in the economic life of every modern state. A study of the economic history of western country shows that without the evolution of commercial banks in the 18th and 19th centuries, the industrial revolution would not have taken place in Europe. The economic importance of commercial banks to the developing countries may be viewed thus:
1. PROMOTING CAPITAL FORMATION:-
A developing economy needs a high rate of capital formation to accelerate the tempo of economic development, but the rate of capital formation depends upon the rate of saving. Unfortunately, in underdeveloped countries, saving is very low. Banks afford facilities for saving and, thus encourage the habits of thrift and industry in the community. They mobilize the ideal and dormant capital of the country and make it available for productive purposes.
2. ENCOURAGING INNOVATION:-
Innovation is another factor responsible for economic development. The entrepreneur in innovation is largely dependent on the manner in which bank credit is allocated and utilized in the process of economic growth. Bank credit enables entrepreneurs to innovate and invest, and thus uplift economic activity and progress.
Banks are the manufactures of money and they allow many to play its role freely in the economy. Banks monetize debts and also assist the backward subsistence sector of the rural economy by extending their branches in to the rural areas. They must be replaced by the modern commercial bank’s branches.
4. INFLUENCE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
Banks are in a position to influence economic activity in a country by their influence on the rate interest. They can influence the rate of interest in the money market through its supply of funds. Banks may follow a cheap money policy with low interest rates which will tend to stimulate economic activity.
5. FACILITATOR OF MONETARY POLICY
Thus monetary policy of a country should be conductive to economic development. But a well-developed banking system is on essential pre-condition to the effective implementation of monetary policy. Under-developed countries cannot afford to ignore this fact.
PRINCIPLES OF BANK LENDING POLICIES
The main business of banking company is to grant loans and advances to forex traders
as well as commercial and industrial institutes. The most important use of banks money is lending. Yet, there are risks in lending. So the banks follow certain principles to minimize the risk:
Normally the banker uses the money of depositors in granting loans and advances. So first of all initially the banker while granting loans should think first of the safety of depositor’s money. The purpose behind the safety is to see the financial position of the borrower whether he can pay the debt as well as interest easily.
It is a legal duty of a banker to pay on demand the total deposited money to the depositor. So the banker has to keep certain percent cash of the total deposits on hand. Moreover the bank grants loan. It is also for the addition of short term or productive capital. Such type of lending is recovered on demand.
Commercial banking is profit earning institutes. Nationalized banks are also not an exception. They should have planning of deposits in a profitability way pay more interest to the depositors and more salary to the employees. Moreover the banker can also incur business cost and can give more benefits to customer.
4. PURPOSE OF LOAN
Banks never lend or advance for any type of purpose. The banks grant loans and advances for the safety of its wealth, and certainty of recovery of loan and the bank lends only for productive purposes. For example, the bank gives such loan for the requirement for unproductive purposes.
5. PRINCIPLE OF DIVERSIFICATION OF RISKS
While lending loans or advances the banks normally keep such securities and assets as a supports so that lending may be safe and secured. Suppose, any particular state is hit by disasters but the bank shall get benefits from the lending to another states units. Thus, he effect on the entire business of banking is reduced.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the main objective of the studies.
1. To study the problem in financial crisis and money related query.
2. To evaluate banking is one of the most regulated businesses in the India.
3. To Analysis the role developing economy for the nation.
4. To study dynamic role in delivery and purchase of consumer durables.
Scope of the Study
All persons need money for personal and commercial purposes. Banks are the oldest lending institutions in Indian scenario. They are providing all facilities to all citizens for their own purposes by their terms. To survive in this modern market every bank implements so many new innovative ideas, strategies, and advanced technologies. For that they give each and every minute detail about their institution and projects to Public. They are providing ample facilities to satisfy their customers i.e. Net Banking, Mobile Banking, Door to Door facility, Instant facility, Investment facility, Demat facility, Credit Card facility, Loans and Advances, Account facility etc. And such banks get success to create their own image in public and corporate world. These banks always accept innovative notions in Indian banking scenario like Credit Cards, ATM machines, Risk Management etc. So, as a student business economics I take keen interest in Indian economy and for that banks are the main source of development.
So this must be the first choice for me to select this topic. At this stage every person must know about new innovation, technology of procedure new schemes and new ventures.
METHODOLGY – FOREX
Theoretical study conducted on the basis of secondary data, collected from books, journal and annual reports.
2. BANK PROFILE:
Name of the Branch : Karaikal. 
Date of Opening : 1971
District/Port Open : Karaikal/Port Town.
Category/Size : Large.
Population : Urban.
Computerisation : CBS.
Name of the Branch Head : R.Muralitharan,(Senior Branch
Staff Strength Officers : 06
Award Staff : 06
Sub Staff : 03
Productivity : Rs. 281.39 Lacs.
Branch Classification : Profit Centre.
Location of the Branch : No. 96-98 Bharathiyar Road,
Competition in the area : Almost All Banks are functioning.
Potential Available : Situated in a Commercial Area with a number of shops around Scope for trade finance. Branch has to tap more trade finance.
Computerised : ATM/CBS.
Commercial Activity : Being a union territory, large commercial Industrial activities are on.
TARGETS vis-à-vis ACHIEVEMENTS
Rupees in Lacs
** Number of Accounts. * Cumulative Figures.
Source: Computed Balance sheet of Indian Bank
Inspection Report Rating:
Inspection Report dated
Source: computed balance sheet.
STRATEGIC ISSUES IN BANKING SERVICES
Strategic Planning is the process of analyzing the organizational external and internal environments; developing the appropriate mission, vision, and overall goals; identifying the general strategies to be pursued; and allocated resources.
• Mission is an organization’s current purpose or reason for existing.
• Vision is an organization’s fundamental aspirations and purpose that usually appeals to its member’s hearts and minds.
• Goals are what an organization is committed to achieving.
• Strategies are the major courses of action that an organization takes to achieves goals.
• Resource Allocation is the earmarking of money, through budgets, for various purposes.
• Downsizing Strategy signals an organization’s intent to rely on fewer resources primarily human-to accomplish its goals.
Tactical Planning is the process of making detailed decisions about what to do, which will do it, and how to do it-with a normal time and horizon of one year or less. The process generally includes:
• Choosing specific goals and the means of implementing the organization’s strategic plan,
• Deciding on courses of action for improving current operations, and
• Developing budgets for each department, division and project.
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
While Total Quality Management has proven to be an effective process for improving organizational functioning, its value can only be assured through a comprehensive and well thought out implementation process. TQM is, in fact, a large scale systems change, and guiding principles and considerations regarding this scale of change will be presented. Without attention to contextual factors, well intended changes may not be adequately designed. As another aspect of context, the expectations and perceptions of employees will be assessed, so that the implementation plan can address them. Specifically, sources of resistance to change and ways of dealing with them will be discussed. This is important to allow a change agent to anticipate resistances and design for them, so that the process does not bog down or stall. Next, a model of implementation will be presented, including a discussion of key principles. Visionary leadership will be offered as an overriding perspective for someone instituting TQM. In recent years the literature on change management and leadership has grown steadily, and applications based on research findings will be more likely to succeed. Use of tested principles will also enable the change agent to avoid reinventing the proverbial wheel. Implementation principles will be followed by a review of steps in managing the transition to the new system and ways of helping institutionalize the process as part of the organization’s culture. Finally, some miscellaneous do’s and don’ts will be offered.
Planned change processes often work, if conceptualized and implemented properly; but, unfortunately, every organization is different, and the processes are often adopted “off the shelf” “the ‘appliance model of organizational change’: buy a complete program, like a ‘quality circle package,’ from a dealer, plug it in, and hope that it runs by itself” (Kanter, 1983, 249). Alternatively, especially in the underfunded public and not for profit sectors, partial applications are tried, and in spite of management and employee commitment do not bear fruit. This chapter will focus on ways of preventing some of these disappointments. In summary, the purpose here is to review principles of effective planned change implementation and suggest specific TQM applications. Several assumptions are proposed:
1. TQM is a viable and effective planned change method, when properly installed
2. Not all organizations are appropriate or ready for TQM
3. Preconditions (appropriateness, readiness) for successful TQM can sometimes be created
4. Leadership commitment to a large scale, long term, and cultural change is necessary.
While problems in adapting TQM in government and social service organizations have been identified, TQM can be useful in such organizations if properly modified.
For survival, banks have to make efforts to improve their quality and competitiveness by planning and taking innovative in fall areas:
· Increase emphasis on customer focused activities
· Intro a “total quality” program
· Developing differential value added services
· Educating employees through involvement programs
· Increase quality through management and system
· Increase effectiveness of product development
· Developing product with lower uses costs
· Customer satisfaction
· Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle
· Management by ‘fact’ – 5Ws (what, why, who, when, and where) + 1H(how) approach
· Respect for people
· Total employee involvement (TEI)
· Total waste elimination (TWE)
· Total quality control (TQC)
TQM focus areas
· Customer satisfaction
· Product quality
· Plant reliability
· Waste elimination
Benefits achieved through TQM
· Increased focus on the customer
· Mindset of ‘continuous improvement’
· Better product quality
· Better systems and procedures
· Better cross-functional teamwork
· Increased plant reliability
· Waste elimination in offices and factories.
According to Peter Drucker and Daniel Bell, the management Gurus knowledge is the only meaningful economic resource. Knowledge management can be defined as a systematic and integrative process of coordinating organization-wide activities of acquiring, creating, storing, sharing, diffusing, developing and deploying knowledge by individual and groups in the pursuit of major organizational goals. It also involves the creation of an interacting learning environment where organization members transfer and share what they know; and apply knowledge to solve problems, innovate and create new knowledge.
Knowledge management is as much about people and culture as it is about technology. Knowledge management thrives only when the human communication network operates freely across the shortest path between the knowledge providers and knowledge seekers. There must be a culture that promotes and rewards the pooling together of knowledge resources. Thus organizations must build a culture that motivates people to create, share and use knowledge.
After the preoccupation with system and procedures to collect data ad translate it into information, its time for firms to focus on the next plane- knowledge. Knowledge management is not a buzzword. Every knowledge management solution, if currently implemented, has definite measurable business benefits.
Future business success increasingly depends on the retention and the creative use of the knowledge ideas and experiences of an organization and its employees. And in knowledge economy corporations need for workers will be more than the workers need for employer.
INNOVATION IN BANK
Innovation drives organizations to grow, prosper and transform in sync with the changes in the environment, both internal and external. Banking is no exception to this. In fact, this sector has witnessed radical transformation of late, based on many innovations in products, processes, services, systems, business models, technology, governance and regulation. A liberalized and globalize financial infrastructure has provided an additional impetus to this gigantic effort.
The pervasive influence of information technology has revolutionaries banking. Transaction costs have crumbled and handling of astronomical number of transactions in no time has become a reality. Internationally, the number brick and mortar structure has been rapidly yielding ground to click and order electronic banking with a plethora of new products. Banking has become boundary less and virtual with a 24 * 7 model. Banks who strongly rely on the merits of relationship banking’ as a time tested way of targeting and serving clients, have readily embraced Customer Relationship Management (CRM), with sharp focus on customer centricity, facilitated by the availability of superior technology. CRM has, therefore, become the new mantra in customer service management, which is both relationship based and information intensive.
Risk management is no longer a mere regulatory issue.basel-2 has accorded a primacy of place to this fascinating exercise by repositioning it as the core of banking. We now see the evolution of many novel deferral products like credit derivatives, especially the Credit Risk Transfer (CRT) mechanism, as a consequence. CRT, characterized by significant product innovation, is a very useful credit risk management tool that enhances liquidity and market efficiency. Securitization is yet another example in this regard, whose strategic use has been rapidly rising globally. So is outsourcing.
TECHNOLOGY IN BANKING
Nobel Laureate Robert Solow had once remarked that computers are seen everywhere excepting in productivity statistics. More recent developments have shown how far this state of affairs has changed. Innovation in technology and worldwide revolution in information and communication technology (ICT) have emerged as dynamic sources of productivity growth. The relationship between IT and banking is fundamentally symbiotic. In the banking sector, IT can reduce costs, increase volumes, and facilitate customized products; similarly, IT requires banking and financial services
to facilitate its growth. As far as the banking system is concerned, the payment system is perhaps the most important mechanism through which such interactive dynamics gets manifested. Recognizing the importance of payments and settlement systems in the economy, we have embarked on technology based solutions for the improvement of the payment and settlement system infrastructure, coupled with the introduction of new payment products such as the computerized settlement of clearing transactions, use of Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) technology for cheque clearing which currently accounts for 65 per cent of the value of cheques processed in the country, the computerization of Government Accounts and Currency Chest transactions, operationalisation of Delivery versus Payment (DvP) for Government securities transactions. Two-way inter-city cheque collection and imaging have been operationalised at the four metros. The coverage of Electronic Clearing Service (Debit and Credit) has been significantly expanded to encourage non-paper based funds movement and develop the provision of a centralized facility for effecting payments. The scheme for Electronic Funds Transfer operated by the Reserve Bank has been significantly augmented and is now available across thirteen major cities. The scheme, which was originally intended for small value transactions, is processing high value (upto Rs.2 crore) from October 1, 2001. The Centralized Funds Management System (CFMS), which would enable banks to obtain consolidated account-wise and centre-wise positions of their balances with all 17 offices of the Deposits Accounts Departments of the Reserve Bank, has begun to be implemented in a phased manner from November 2001.
A holistic approach has been adopted towards designing and development of a modern, robust, efficient, secure and integrated payment and settlement system taking into account certain aspects relating to potential risks, legal framework and the impact on the operational framework of monetary policy. The approach to the modernization of the
payment and settlement system in India has been three-pronged: (a) consolidation, (b) development, and (c) integration. The consolidation of the existing payment systems revolves around strengthening Computerized Cheque clearing, expanding the reach of Electronic Clearing Services and Electronic Funds Transfer by providing for systems with the latest levels of technology. The critical elements in the developmental strategy are the opening of new clearing houses, interconnection of clearing houses through the INFINET; optimizing the deployment of resources by banks through Real Time Gross Settlement System, Centralized Funds Management System (CFMS); Negotiated Dealing System (NDS) and the Structured Financial Messaging Solution (SFMS). While integration of the various payment products with the systems of individual banks is the thrust area, it requires a high degree of standardization within a bank and seamless interfaces across banks.
The setting up of the apex-level National Payments Council in May 1999 and the operationalisation of the INFINET by the Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT), Hyderabad have been some important developments in the direction of providing a communication network for the exclusive use of banks and financial institutions. Membership in the INFINET has been opened up to all banks in addition to those in the public sector. At the base of all inter-bank message transfers using the INFINET is the Structured Financial Messaging System (SFMS). It would serve as a secure communication carrier with templates for intra- and inter-bank messages in fixed message formats that will facilitate ‘straight through processing’. All inter-bank transactions would be stored and switched at the central hub at Hyderabad while intra bank messages will be switched and stored by the bank gateway. Security features of the SFMS would match international standards.
In order to maximize the benefits of such efforts, banks have to take pro-active measures to:
· further strengthen their infrastructure in respect of standardization, high levels
· of security and communication and networking;
· achieve inter-branch connectivity early;
· popularize the usage of the scheme of electronic funds transfer (EFT); and
· Institute arrangements for an RTGS environment online with a view to integrating into a secure and consolidated payment system.
Information technology has immense untapped potential in banking. Strengthening of information technology in banks could improve the effectiveness of asset-liability management in banks. Building up of a related data-base on a real time basis would enhance the forecasting of liquidity greatly even at the branch level. This could contribute to enhancing the risk management capabilities of banks.
REGULATIONS AND COMPLIANCE
Progressive strengthening, deepening and refinement of the regulatory and supervisory system for the financial sector have been important elements of financial sector reforms. In the long run, it is the supervision and regulation function that is critical in safeguarding financial stability. There is also some evidence that proactive and effective supervision contributes to the efficiency of financial intermediation. Financial sector supervision is expected to become increasingly risk-based and concerned with validating systems rather than setting them. This will entail procedures for sound internal evaluation of risk for banks. As mentioned earlier, bank managements will have to develop internal capital assessment processes in accordance with their risk profile and control environment. These internal processes would then be subjected to review and supervisory intervention if necessary. The emphasis will be on evaluating the quality of risk management and the adequacy of risk containment. In such an environment, credibility assigned by markets to risk disclosures will hold only if they are validated by supervisors. Thus effective and appropriate supervision is critical for the effectiveness of capital requirements and market discipline.
In certain areas, as for instance, in the urban cooperative banking segment, the regulatory requirements leave considerable scope for regulatory arbitrage and even circumvention. The problem is rendered more complex by the existence of regulatory overlap between the Central Government, the State Governments and the Reserve Bank. Regulatory overlap has impeded the speed of regulatory response to emerging problems. The need for removing multiple regulatory jurisdictions over the cooperative banking sector has been reiterated on several occasions. In this regard, the Reserve Bank has proposed the setting up of an apex supervisory body for urban cooperative banks under the control of a high-level supervisory board consisting of representatives of the Central governments, the State governments, the Reserve Bank and experts. The apex body is expected to ensure compliance with prudential requirements and also supervise on-site inspections and off-site surveillance.
Recent developments in certain segments of the financial sector have also brought to the fore issues relating to corporate governance in banks. As part of on-going reforms, boards have been given greater autonomy to prescribe internal control guidelines, risk management and procedures for market discipline and accountability. It is extremely important that greater vigilance over adherence to these norms goes hand-in-hand with greater autonomy. Recent evidence of transgression of prudential guidelines by a few banks has raised the issue of the audit and supervisory functions of boards. As we move towards a more deregulated financial regime, these functions have to be transferred from either the Government or the Reserve Bank to bank boards. This imposes a greater responsibility and accountability on the bank management. It is in this context that a consultative group of directors of select banks and other experts has been set up to recommend measures to strengthen the internal supervisory role of boards. The objective is to obtain a feedback on how boards function vis-à-vis compliance with prudential norms, transparency and disclosure, functioning of the audit committee, etc., and to devise effective mechanisms for ensuring management discipline.
Several other initiatives in improving the supervisory function have been undertaken, including a prudential supervisory reporting system for financial institutions, improvements in procedures for financial inspection, sensitizing the general public for better regulation of the activities of NBFCs and enactment of appropriate legislation to protect depositor interests in some States. Major legal reforms have been initiated in areas
such as security laws, the Negotiable Instruments Act, bank frauds and the regulatory framework of banking. The Reserve Bank has also accepted the principle of transfer of ownership to the Government in respect of some financial institutions in view of the conflict of interest that may arise in the conduct of its supervisory function. It is expected that these initiatives will pave the way for an efficient, and risk-based supervisory environment in India.
The largest set of consolidated regulations that mandate integrity of data in India are the IT Act and SEBI’s clause 49 for listed companies. These regulations do not currently enforce the kind of security standards that are common in Europe and the US. In a global economy, however, no company is an island and India Inc is adopting US and European compliance procedures and certifications such as Sarbanes Oxley, Safe Harbour, BS, and ISO.
Compliance, regulatory or otherwise, does not directly concern the IT department. In manufacturing for instance, compliance controls don’t really involve system security, and a large part of the quality control required by authorities cannot be imposed or enforced using IT. Companies that deal with sensitive information, financial services and BPOs, banks, MNC subsidiaries or those with plans to expand beyond Indian shores are all affected. These will continue to make strides towards compliance. For the mediumscale segment (Rs 100-300 crore turnover), security and audits are not a priority. This segment is comfortable with public mail servers, and exchanging information over not very secure connections.
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – CODE OF CONDUCT
1. Need and objective of the Code
Clause 49 of the Listing agreement entered into with the Stock Exchanges, requires, as part of Corporate Governance the listed entities to lay down a Code of Conduct for Directors on the Board of an entity and its Senior Management. The term “Senior Management” shall mean personnel of the company who are members of its core management team excluding the Board of Directors. This would also include all members of management, one level below the Executive Directors including all functional heads.
2. Bank’s Belief System
This Code of Conduct attempts to set forth the guiding principles on which the Bank shall operate and conduct its daily business with its multitudinous stakeholders, government and regulatory agencies, media and anyone else with whom it is connected. It recognizes that the Bank is a trustee and custodian of public money and in order to fulfill fiduciary obligations and responsibilities, it has to maintain and continue to enjoy the trust and confidence of public at large.
The Bank acknowledges the need to uphold the integrity of every transaction it enters into and believes that honesty and integrity in its internal conduct would be judged by its external behavior. The bank shall be committed in all its actions to the interest of the countries in which it operates. The Bank is conscious of the reputation it carries amongst its customers and public at large and shall endeavor to do all it can to sustain and improve upon the same in its discharge of obligations. The Bank shall continue to initiate policies, which are customer centric and which promote financial prudence.
A. General Standards of conduct
The Bank expects all Directors and members of the Core Management to exercise good judgment, to ensure the interests, safety and welfare of customers, employees and other stakeholders and to maintain a cooperative, efficient, positive, harmonious and productive work environment and business organization. The Directors and members of the Core Management while discharging duties of their office must act honestly and with due diligence. They are expected to act with that amount of utmost care and prudence, which an ordinary person is expected to take in his/ her own business. These standards need to be applied while working in the premises of the Bank, at offsite locations where business is being conducted whether in India or abroad, at Bank-sponsored business and social events, or at any other place where they act as representatives of the Bank.
B. Conflict of Interest
A “conflict of interest” occurs when personal interest of any member of the Board of Directors and of the Core management interferes or appears to interfere in any way with the interests of the Bank. Every member of the Board of Directors and Core Management has a responsibility to the Bank, its stakeholders and to each other. Although this duty does not prevent them from engaging in personal transactions and investments, it does demand that they avoid situations where a conflict of interest might occur or appear to occur. They are expected to perform their duties in a way that they do not conflict with the Bank’s interest such as :
· Employment /Outside Employment – The members of the Core Management are expected to devote their total attention to the business interests of the Bank. They are prohibited from engaging in any activity that interferes with their performance or responsibilities to the Bank or otherwise is in conflict with or prejudicial to the Bank.
· Business Interests – If any member of the Board of Directors and Core Management considers investment in securities issued by the Bank’s customer, supplier or competitor, they should ensure that these investments do not compromise their responsibilities to the Bank. Many factors including the size and nature of the investment; their ability to influence the Bank’s decisions, their access to confidential information of the Bank, or of the other entity, and the nature of the relationship between the Bank and the customer, supplier or competitor should be considered in determining whether a conflict exists. Additionally, they should disclose to the Bank any interest that they have which may conflict with the business of the Bank.
C. Applicable Laws
The Directors of the Bank and Core Management must comply with applicable laws,regulations, rules and regulatory orders. They should report any inadvertent non -compliance, if detected subsequently, to the concerned authorities.
D. Disclosure Standards
The Bank shall make full, fair, accurate, timely and meaningful disclosures in the periodic reports required to be filed with Government and Regulatory agencies. The members of Core Management of the bank shall initiate all actions deemed necessary for proper dissemination of relevant information to the Board of Directors, Auditors and other Statutory Agencies, as may be required by applicable laws, rules and regulations.
E. Use of Bank’s Assets and Resources
Each member of the Board of Directors and the Core Management has a duty to the Bank to advance its legitimate interests while dealing with the Bank’s assets and resources. Members of the Board of Directors and Core Management are prohibited from:
· Using Corporate property, information or position for personal gain,
· Soliciting, demanding, accepting or agreeing to accept anything of value from any person while dealing with the Bank’s assets and resources,
· Acting on behalf of the Bank in any transaction in which they or any of their relative(s) have a significant direct or indirect interest.
F. Confidentiality and Fair Dealings
(i) Bank’s confidential Information
· The Bank’s confidential information is a valuable asset. It includes all
trade related information, trade secrets, confidential and privileged information, customer information, employee related information, strategies, administration, research in connection with the Bank and commercial, legal, scientific, technical data that are either provided to or made available each member of the Board of Directors and the core Management by the Bank either in paper form or electronic media to facilitate their work or that they are able to know or obtain access by virtue of their position with the Bank. All confidential information must be used for Bank’s business purposes only.
· This information includes the safeguarding, securing and proper disposal of confidential information in accordance with the Bank’s policy on maintaining and managing records. The obligation extends to confidential of third parties, which the Bank has rightfully received under non-disclosure agreements.
· To further the Bank’s business, confidential information may have to be disclosed to potential business partners. Such disclosures should be made after considering its potential benefits and risks. Care should be taken to divulge the most sensitive information, only after the said potential business partner has signed a confidentiality agreement with the Bank.
· Any publication or publicly made statement that might be perceived or construed as attributable to the Bank, made outside the scope of any appropriate authority in the Bank, should include a disclaimer that the publication or statement represents the views of the specific author and not the Bank.
(ii) Other Confidential Information
The bank has many kinds of business relationships with many companies and individuals. Sometimes, they will volunteer confidential information about their products or business plans to induce the Bank to enter into a business relationship. At other times, the Bank may request that a third party provide confidential information to permit the Bank to evaluate a potential business relationship with the party. Therefore, special care must be taken by the Board of Directors and members of the Core Management to handle the confidential information of others responsibly. Such confidential information should be handled in accordance with the agreements with such third parties.
· The Bank requires that every Director and the member of Core Management, General Managers should be fully compliant with the laws, statutes, rules and regulations that have the objective of preventing unlawful gains of any nature whatsoever.
· Directors and members of Core Management shall not accept any offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization to pay any money, gift or anything of value from customers, suppliers, shareholders/ stakeholders etc that is perceived as intended, directly or indirectly, to influence any business decision, any act or failure to act, any commission of fraud or opportunity for the commission of any fraud.
4. Good Corporate Governance Practices
Each member of the Board of Directors and Core Management of the Bank should adhere to the following so as to ensure compliance with good Corporate Governance practices.
§ Attend Board meetings regularly and participate in the deliberations and discussions effectively.
§ Study the Board papers thoroughly and enquire about follow-up reports on definite time schedule.
§ Involve actively in the matter of formulation of general policies.
· Be familiar with the broad objectives of the Bank and policies laid down by the Government and the various laws and legislations.
· Ensure confidentiality of the Bank’s agenda papers, notes and minutes.
· Do not interfere in the day to day functioning of the Bank.
· Do not reveal any information relating to any constituent of the Bank to anyone.
· Do not display the logo / distinctive design of the Bank on their personal visiting cards / letter heads.
· Do not sponsor any proposal relating to loans, investments, buildings or sites for Bank’s premises, enlistment or empanelment of contractors, architects, auditors, doctors, lawyers and other professionals etc.
· Do not do anything, which will interfere with and/ or be subversive of maintenance of discipline, good conduct and integrity of the staff.
· Any waiver of any provision of this Code of Conduct for a
member of the Bank’s Board of Directors or a member of the Core Management must be approved in writing by the Board of Directors of the Bank.
The matters covered in this Code of Conduct are of the utmost importance to the bank, its stakeholders and its business partners, and are essential to the Bank’s ability to conduct its business in accordance with its value system.
Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a majority of new businesses fail. Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization that is being started. Entrepreneurship may involve creating many job opportunities.
Many “high-profile” entrepreneurial ventures seek venture capital or angel funding in order to raise capital to build the business. Many kinds of organizations now exist to support would-be entrepreneurs, including specialized government agencies, business incubators, science parks, and some NGOs. Schumpeter (1950), an entrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation. Entrepreneurship forces “creative destruction” across markets and industries, simultaneously creating new products and business models and eliminating others. In this way, creative destruction is largely responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth. Despite Schumpeter’s early 20th-century contributions, the traditional microeconomic theory of economics has had little room for entrepreneurs in their theories.
Characteristics of entrepreneurship:-
§ The entrepreneur, who has a vision and the enthusiasm for this vision, is the driving force of an entrepreneurship
§ The vision is usually supported by a set of ideas that have not been aware by the majority of the market/industry
§ The overall blueprint to realize the vision is clear, however details may be incomplete, flexible, and evolving
§ The entrepreneur promotes the vision with an influential passion
§ With a persistent and deterministic mindset, the entrepreneur devises a set of entrepreneurial strategies to thrive for the vision
PERFORMANCE AND BENCHMARKING – Forex
• PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT:-
Performance management is a systematic approach to improving worker productivity through a year-round, ongoing process of communicating and managing performance expectations. With Performance-based Management, performance improvement becomes the joint responsibility of employees and their managers. Generally there are two things which determine how successful a performance appraisal system is in place in an organization.
1) The contents/design of the performance appraisal form and
2) The manner in which Performance Appraisal is conducted.
While organizations lay great emphasis on the contents/design part, spending much of time, money and energy on designing most suitable, objective, comprehensive formats, it serves no purpose if the appraising process is not conducted properly.
Performance-based Management measures, evaluates and improves performance on the job. You can expect employee productivity to increase because performance assessments and performance feedback will always be job-related, even if the duties of a particular job expand or change. Furthermore, because this type of performance management focuses on productivity and not personality and since it involves ongoing, open, two-way communication between manager and employee, it greatly reduces many of the stereotypes, problems and anxieties associated with traditional labor-intensive
A benchmark is a point of reference for a measurement. The term presumably originates from the practice of making dimensional height measurements of an object on a workbench using a graduated scale or similar tool, and using the surface of the workbench as the origin for the measurements.
Benchmarks are designed to mimic a particular type of workload on a component or system. “Synthetic” benchmarks do this by specially-created programs that impose the workload on the component. “Application” benchmarks, instead, run actual real-world programs on the system. Whilst application benchmarks usually give a much better measure of real-world performance on a given system, synthetic benchmarks still have their use for testing out individual components, like a hard disk or networking device. Computer manufacturers have a long history of trying to set up their systems to give unrealistically high performance on benchmark tests that is not replicated in real usage. For instance, during the 1980s some compilers could detect a specific mathematical operation used in a well-known floating-point benchmark and replace the operation with a mathematically-equivalent operation that was much faster. However, such a transformation was rarely useful outside the benchmark. Manufacturers commonly report only those benchmarks (or aspects of benchmarks) that show their products in the best light. They also have been known to mis-represent the significance of benchmarks, again to show their products in the best possible light. Taken together, these practices are called bench-marketing.
Users are recommended to take benchmarks, particularly those provided by manufacturers themselves, with ample quantities of salt. If performance is really critical, the only benchmark that matters is the actual workload that the system is to be used for. If that is not possible, benchmarks that resemble real workloads as closely as possible should be used, and even then used with skepticism. It is quite possible for system A to outperform system B when running program “furble” on workload X (the workload in the benchmark), and the order to be reversed with the same program on your own workload.
Benchmarking (Comparing) is a selective method of finding out how and why some companies can perform tasks much better than other companies. There can be as much as a tenfold difference in the quality, speed and cost-performance of an average company versus a world-class company.
It involves the following seven steps
1) Determine functions to benchmark.
2) Identify the key performance variables to measure.
3) Identify the best-in-class companies.
4) Measure performance of best-in-class companies
5) Measures the company’s performance.
6) Specify programs and actions to close the gap
7) Implement and monitor results
A company can identify “best practices” companies by asking employees, customers, suppliers and distributors what they rate as doing the best. Major Consulting Firms can also be contacted for this purpose. To keep costs under control, a company should focus primarily on benchmarking those critical tasks that deeply affect customer satisfaction and Cost Management and where substantially better performance is known to exist.
Benchmarking is a process used in management and particularly strategic management, in which businesses use industry leaders as a model in developing their business practices. This involves determining where you need to improve, finding an organization that is exceptional in this area, then studying the company and applying it’s best practices in your firm. Benchmarking systematically studies the absolute best firms, then uses their best practices as
Nidheesh K B – Forex